Archive for December, 2009

1. Self-Myofascial Release in the form of foam rolling and targeted trigger point therapy is a critical component to performing and feeling better. Good tissue quality lays a foundation for good motor patterns. Thanks to Mark Verstegen for bringing foam rolling to the forefront of the fitness industry.

2. Trainers who ignore learning assessment and corrective strategies are extremely lazy, as deep down they know it’s something that will be of dramatic value to their clients. Thanks to therapists and professors like Gray Cook, Mike Clark, Stuart McGill, and Shirley Sahrmann for teaching us so many important techniques.

3. Assess and Correct is a must have product for trainers and strength coaches. Thanks to Eric Cressey, Mike Robertson, and Bill Hartmann for creating such a comprehensive product.

4. Front planks done the right way are extremely difficult. Unfortunately 99% of people do them incorrectly. Thanks to Joe Sansalone for drastically improving my form.

5. Reading books and watching dvd’s are amazing ways to learn all of the brilliant insight and knowledge that certain gurus have gleaned over the years, which is also an incredible shortcut to becoming a guru.

6. The future of Kinesiology/Exercise Science will include a blend of Physical Therapy/Corrective Exercise. The two fields truly go hand in hand, as you can’t optimize power production without first optimizing movement efficiency, and putting fitness onto dysfunction is never wise in the long run.

7. An exercise becomes much more productive when you grip onto something tight and allow for the transfer of strength from the upper body through the core into the lower body. Thanks for to Charlie Weingroff for the brilliant tip. This allowed me to realize why the reverse hyper machine is so amazing.

8. The joint-by-joint approach to training is so simple yet so brilliant, as is the concept of movement patterns. Thanks to Mike Boyle for always staying ahead of the curve.

9. Most people don’t really understand the art of strength training. Thanks to Dan John, Christian Thibaudeau, and Jim Wendler for always putting out great articles to remind us about the art of lifting weights for strength gains.

10. Seminars are an excellent way to network. Thanks to Perform Better for putting together great seminars.

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Interview With Mark Young

The following is an interview I did with Mark Young, an excellent personal trainer out of Canada. He’s written some good articles for TMuscle. Mark was kind enough to interview me, so I was eager to return the favor.

1. Briefly Tell Me About Yourself, and Include What Type of Trainer You’d Label Yourself.

First off, let me thank you for inviting me to do this interview.

I’m a personal trainer/strength coach based in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada and have been in the fitness industry for about 10 years. At the risk of pigeon holing myself, I tend to focus mostly on fat loss or physique training, but have interests in various sorts of athletic training.

As some may be aware, I am quite focused on corrective exercise, but this actually came about mostly by chance. If you train people long enough I believe you’ll eventually stumble across those who have nagging pains or those who develop acute problems that need to be dealt with to allow that client to achieve optimal results. Not having the skills to help them means they’re eventually either going to go somewhere else.

As a result, I made a commitment to really understand movement at a level that would enable me to treat current issues and prevent new ones from occurring in my clients. In doing so, more and more people have come to me to help piece them back together. The better I get, the more interesting cases I see.

To give you an example, I recently dealt with 60 year old client who had a total of 3 previous heart attacks, 3 arthroscopic shoulder surgeries, 9 arthroscopic knee surgeries, and a compressed lumbar disc. His primary goal was fat loss, but without sorting out his problems he never would have been able to exercise at the level required for the results he wanted.

2. What are the Most Common Mistakes You See Guys Doing in the Gym?

I honestly haven’t been in a commercial gym in several years, but I’d be willing to be that most guys are making some of the same mistakes they were then.

Many novices are following the advice of the typical newsstand “guns and buns” magazines and attempting to do routines created by or for professional bodybuilders. Unfortunately, these routines are usually far too high in volume for a natural lifter with average genetics. Others who are following better routines could theoretically have better results, but many people have exercise ADD and flip from program to program based on what is the “next big thing” that particular month.

Probably the biggest mistake though, is not having a specific measurable goal at all times. If I walked up to you in the gym and asked you what your current goal is (and the date you expect to achieve it) and you couldn’t give me an answer, you might as well pack your shit and go home. Trainees should ALWAYS have a goal in mind. Without that you’re just wasting your time.

3. What are the Most Common Mistakes You See Girls Doing in the Gym?

I don’t quite understand this with all of the information out there today, but most women are still spending far too much time on the cardio equipment and too little time hitting the weights. And when they do train with weights, many women train like 5 year old girls because they’re afraid of bulking up.

Quite frankly, if you’re a woman and you want to lose fat and look smoking hot, you need to lift weights that are heavy enough to force the muscles to adapt. Regardless of what Tracy Anderson says, women MUST lift weights heavier than 3 pounds.

4. What’s the Quickest Way to Get a Typical Athlete More Powerful?

Send them to see Bret Contreras? Do I get my cheque now?

Okay…honestly, the primary difference between strength and power is speed. Whatever the movement, the key is to emphasize maximizing speed. I think that because of their egos a lot of athletes (and lifters in general) fixate on lifting the heaviest weights possible. To get an athlete more powerful, a CNS driven warm up followed by explosive movements is the most beneficial solution. I personally don’t agree with magic formulas or percentages because I don’t bring a calculator to the gym. The exact nature of the exercise selection depends on the client and phase of training.

5. If You Could Only Do Five Exercises for the Rest of Your Life, What Would They Be?

Exercise selection is entirely dependent on the person I’m training so it would be hard to pick just 5 that would remain the same for everyone. However, if I were talking about myself I’d choose seated rows, pull ups, incline dumbbell press, Bulgarian squats, and single leg Romanian deadlifts. I would also sneak in static core training variations when you weren’t looking. Take that ass man. 8)

6. What Does the Typical Personal Trainer Need to Learn More About in Order to be More Effective?

Most trainers need to learn more about identifying their strengths and weaknesses. While we’re all inclined to study that which is most familiar to us, it is important to spend the most time on the areas where we are weakest. If you are good at hypertrophy, but suck at corrective work then focus your efforts here. If corrective work is your specialty then you might want to allocate more time to performance, personal development, or even the business elements of this industry.

All in all, most experienced coaches would agree that it takes 10,000 to become and expert in your field. Reading something related to fitness or nutrition for at least an hour per day will take you a long way towards reaching this number.

7. Who Would You Consider Your Mentors, and What Books/DVD’s Have Shaped Your Philosophy the Most?

I’ve had far too many influences to count, but guys like Mike Robertson and John Berardi have always been good enough to take the time out to chat with me and give advice.

As for books, the three that have had the biggest impact on me are:

– Diagnosis and Treatment of Movement Impairment Syndromes by Shirley Sahrmann
– Muscles: Testing and Function with Posture and Pain by Kendall
– Low Back Disorders by Stuart McGill

Honorable mention goes to: Bulletproof Knees, Assess and Correct, Combat Core, and Black Book of Training Secrets. I’ve yet to see Mike Boyle’s new Functional Strength Coach DVDs, but if they’re as good as the last set I’d suggest those too.

8. Word Association Time:

Squats: Great for some and terrible for others. It really comes down to the goals of the client and the assessment abilities of the trainer. I don’t think they’re essential for fat loss, but if you’re a powerlifter you’d better get under the bar.

Deadlifts: A great movement for development of the hip as a hinge. Crazy upper back development and huge thoracic erectors are additional benefits. If a client doesn’t have any contraindications, this movement is definitely in their program.

Hip Thrusts: Very enjoyable. Always use protection. Oh sorry…you meant the exercise didn’t you? These are definitely a valuable addition to any trainer’s arsenal. I suspect that females with lagging glute development could significantly benefit from this exercise.

Chops/Lifts: I love rotational core variations, especially when they’re in a diagonal pattern. Sadly, most people do these incorrectly since they rotate the body as they move through the movement. Static core and movement of the limbs creates a huge moment arm and incredible rotational stability.

Corrective Exercise: Incredibly valuable for prevention and treatment of injuries which allows people to train harder for longer. This is often confused with the only thing that a trainer does when it is actually only one of many elements in their programming.

9. That’s great Mark. Thanks. Where can people learn more about you?

No problem Bret. People can check me out on my blog at www.markyoungtrainingsystems.com, or Twitter www.twitter.com/markyoungtrain. They can also sign up for my free newsletter on my site to get additional “subscriber only” info.

Thanks again!

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This is an interview I did a while back with Mark Young. Mark is an extremely intelligent individual for whom I have much respect.

Mark Young: A little while back strength coach Bret Contreras busted onto the scene with his article Dispelling the Glute Myth on Tmuscle.com. Some were inspired by his ideas and others just thought he was downright arrogant for talking smack about some of the other coaches in the industry. As it turns out, I was one of the latter, but after I got over myself I decided to contact him only to find out that he’s a pretty smart and humble guy just trying to make a splash with his first foray into the fitness world. I asked him to do a quick interview for my blog and he was all over it like a frat boy on a keg.

Hey Bret! Thanks for taking the time to do this interview. Since you’ve been dubbed The Glute Guy you’ve obviously got a serious fixation with the glutes. Are you just an obsessive butt man or what?

Bret: Thank you very much Mark for taking the time to interview me. Yes and no. As a typical testosterone-producing male, of course I appreciate a nice butt. In fact, if there’s a hot little minx running around with a perfect butt, I find it nearly impossible to focus on anything else. My eyes hone in on a perfect [female] booty like a hawk on his prey. The problem is, nice booties are very rare. I remember being at the mall once and counting how many nice butts I saw (male or female) out of 100 pedestrians. There were around five decent ones and none that I would consider “great.” A girl with a perfect butt can get a grown man to do almost anything and can pretty much rule the world.

But I digress. I am interested in the glutes from a performance standpoint as well. The glutes are the primary hip extensors, hip abductors, and hip rotators, which make them critical muscles involved in running, jumping, cutting, and twisting…pretty much every major motion in sports. Strong, powerful glutes often separate the men from the boys so to speak in terms of athleticism. So if one was to become fixated on a single muscle group, the glutes make the most sense to me as the area upon which to become fixated. But I wouldn’t consider myself a “glute-only” guy. I’m also “obsessed” with all other major muscle groups. As I write more articles people will realize that I have a ton of knowledge to share regarding the entire spectrum of muscles, movements, and energy systems.

Mark: Okay cool. So tell me what it is about training the glutes that you think everyone has been missing. You’ve obviously got some different ideas. Can you expand upon that a little bit?

Bret: If you’ve read my articles and/or my eBook, you’ll know that I’ve come up with plenty of exercise ideas for the glutes. However, I tend to focus on getting people strong at the hip thrust and pendulum quadruped hip extension while using great form. This is tricky because often beginners do not possess adequate glute strength and/or hip range of motion so they contort their spines rather than stabilize the core and use solely hip motion to perform the lifts. This is why it is important to address hip flexor quality and length, start out with just bodyweight, and progress wisely. At the end of a workout, I tend to throw in a set of standing band abductions or standing band external rotations as well. For beginners, I would just throw in a set of side lying abductions or side lying clams as they aren’t yet strong enough for the bands. Of course, the glutes are also used when doing squat, deadlift, and lunge patterns as well as plyos, sprints, agility drills, explosive lifts, and sled work, but the targeted glute work helps out dramatically in terms of improved performance.

Mark: Your views on load vectors are very thought-provoking. Can you briefly explain this concept?

Bret: Gladly! It is often said that there is a gap between the weight room and the sports arena (track, field, court, ring, etc.). It doesn’t need to be this way. Jumping is axial, so are squats, deadlifts, jump squats, and Olympic lifts. For optimal sports performance, do them all! You’ll hit all ends of the force curve. But force is directional-specific. Running is anteroposterior, so are hip thrusts, back extensions, reverse hypers, and sled pushing. Do them all! Cutting is lateromedial, backpedaling is posteroanterior, and twisting is torsional. This is why it’s important to add in slideboard and agility drills, multi-directional lunge and sled dragging, and rotational work with bands, cables, a tornado ball, and/or a landmine unit. The trick is to learn how to blend all of this training together without overtraining. If you do it right, your athletes will get stronger and more explosive from every direction. The days of just squatting and power cleaning for leg power are long gone.

Mark: Very interesting. What’s been on your mind recently in terms of strength training and fitness?

Bret: Recently I’ve been paying attention to the different types of trainers and strength coaches. Bad trainers suck at everything. Decent trainers seem to fall into one of two “camps.” The “functional, overly-cautious” types or the “hard core, balls-to-the-wall” types. The functional types need to be better at getting their athletes strong. Many of these types truly have “paralysis by analysis” and are incapable of producing strong athletes. The hard core types need to be better at producing clean movement. An athlete will never maximize his or her power and agility if he or she isn’t moving efficiently. Strength is good, but not at the expense of altering good movement patterns and using sound exercise technique. Great trainers can produce clean movement and get their athletes very strong while exhibiting great form.

Great trainers are also good at improving all qualities while providing a fun, challenging workout. People like gaining strength, power, and conditioning. They also like to feel certain muscles working and they appreciate variety. Finally, they like moving better and more efficiently. That’s why you need to address the whole gamut of fitness; foam rolling, stretching, prehab, power work, strength work, energy system development, etc. One dimensional trainers can’t hold a candle to trainers who have a sound understanding of the various training principles. In my opinion, to excel as a trainer you need to have a good understanding of bodybuilding, powerlifting, Olympic weightlifting, strongman, track & field, mixed martial arts, sport-specific training, and physical therapy. If a trainer doesn’t work out then how in the hell are they going to learn new techniques? You have to give certain movements and methods time and be in good condition in order to reap the benefits. The trainer or coach who doesn’t work out cannot progress as fast as a trainer or coach who does work out.

People in this field often say that nothing is ever new. I see their point, since most exercises or methods have been performed somewhere, sometime in the past. However, I completely disagree that nothing is ever new. My training evolves considerably over time. I get much better as a trainer each year. This time next year, I’ll know much more and the way I train will improve. Scientific advancements, trends, and new equipment dramatically alter the strength and conditioning industry. Sure, your big rocks may not change much, but your small rocks certainly will. Ten years ago I never heard of foam rolling or glute activation. Ten years from now, there will be new principles that I’ll need to know in order to be an awesome trainer.

Last, the best trainers are positive, high-energy, motivating, caring individuals who can dramatically influence what their clients do during the 22-23 hours of the day that they’re not around their clients. Eating right, sleeping well, thinking positively, and paying attention to posture are things that great trainers can get their clients to do which will greatly speed up results.

Mark: Wow Bret, good stuff. Where can my readers learn more about you and find more of your stuff?

Bret: I’ve just recently got a blog up and running so check you can that out HERE. I also have a Twitter account, I’m on Facebook, I have a Youtube account, I’ve written articles for http://www.StrengthCoach.Com and http://www.TMuscle.Com, and you can buy my eBook at http://www.TheGluteGuy.Com.

Mark: Thanks Bret, I appreciate the interview!

Bret: Thanks Mark, keep on truckin’!

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Some of you may have seen this before; it’s a blog put together by my friend Nick Tumminello. I thought it was very inciteful so I asked him if I could repost it on my blog. Here it is:

In this post, I’m going to provide with some great advice from myself and some of the Strength & Conditioning Industry’s Smartest Coaches.

Coach Nick Tumminello says – “Don’t be the kind of Strength Coach who…”
“Never listens to your clients and doesn’t care about what they want because you have already decided what they need”

“Who doesn’t provide an element of variety and fun during your workouts”

“Would rather be right than helpful”

“Mistakes your personal opinions for facts”

“Tells other professionals “this is how you should do things” over saying “this is how I do things”

“Who thinks they are smarter than the human body”

“Thinks they need to fix everybody’s problems”

“Specializes in a piece of equipment”

“Trains to your bias”

“Uses exercise as punishment”

“Tries to be cool instead being effective”

“Confusing adaption with adaptability”

“Trains people like robots”

“Forgets who’s session it really is”

“Is overly stuck on the science”

Eric Cressey Says – “Dont’ be the kind of Strength Coach who…”
“Invites me to be a fan of your bootcamp’s facebook fan page for the 8,497th time even though I’ve already shot you down the first 8,496 times because I didn’t want to be inundated with notifications about how you’re having a free 6AM class 7,000 miles from where I live”

“Don’t be the kind of strength coach who…overlooks assessments. A destination and road map won’t do you any good if you don’t know your starting point”

“Don’t be the kind of strength coach who…doesn’t actually train oneself”

“Don’t be the kind of strength coach who…still thinks that it is just about clean, squat, bench. We’ve learned a lot since 1983″

Kevin Neeld says – ”Dont’ be the kind of Strength Coach who…”
“Stops reading when they graduate college!”

“Thinks that corrective exercise is only for the training room”

“Doesn’t acknowledge the importance of nutrition in facilitating results and recovery”

Mike T Nelson says – ”Dont’ be the kind of Strength Coach who…”
“confuses pain with progress”

“does not test anything or perform any re-assessment”

“does not account for TOTAL stress (lifestyle included)”

“does not think for themselves”

“does not directly address the role of the nervous system in performance”

“allows athletes to move like crap”

“only makes them a great athlete in the GYM and NOT on the field where it counts”

Mark Young says – ”Dont’ be the kind of Strength Coach who…”
“is a giant pompous ass”

Chad Waterbury says – “Don’t be the kind of strength coach who”
“Loses focus of what the goal of the training session really is”

“Focuses on the muscles instead of the nervous system”

“Thinks having more certifications is better”

“Gives credence to coaches who have trained no one”

Rob Simonelli says – ”Dont’ be the kind of Strength Coach who…”
“Forges ahead with today’s workout even after learning an athletes “today” injury or limitation”

Matt Coe says – “Don’t be kind to the strength coach who…”
“Thinks Crossfit and their mascot pukey are cool.”

“Doesn’t use a progressive system”.

“Is more about using the new gimmick they have in the training of their client (i.e. entertrainment) than getting results”

Bret Contreras says – ”Dont’ be the kind of Strength Coach who…”
“Prescribes solely axial hip dominant exercises and fails to prescribe any anteroposterior hip dominant exercises”

“is overly-focused on having his athletes hit big numbers in the powerlifts”

“doesn’t keep up with new research and methodology”

“has his or her clients do 30 minutes on the treadmill as part of their session”

“fails to prioritize unilateral lower body training”

“sticks to machines only”

Mike Boyle says – ”Dont’ be the kind of Strength Coach who…”
“Who never attends a seminar”

Bruce Kelly says – ”Dont’ be the kind of Strength Coach who…”
“Fails to realize that learning is a continuous, life long process. There are too many facets in this business for someone to be intellectually lazy and not spend part of each day reading, learning something new, etc.”

“Isn’t open to listening to other points of view whether they coincide with your philosophy or not. Doesn’t mean you have to agree but you should at least listen”

“Has PDD (program deficit disorder). Heard that one from Brett Jones. We know the type who jumps from program to program according to what they just read or heard.”

Henry Paul says – ”Dont’ be the kind of Strength Coach who…”
“Who doesn’t make changes when they know they are wrong. There’s no shame in admitting a mistake in your programme, it’ll only improve you and your athlete.”

Coach Wendy says – ”Dont’ be the kind of Strength Coach who…”
“Who prescribes an exercise without trying it first (and mastering it)”

Eric Wong says – ”Dont’ be the kind of Strength Coach who…”
“pushes your athletes harder than you’ll push yourself”

“Spends so much time training and working to make money that you neglect study, learning, and experimenting with new techniques”


Dan Blewett says – ”Dont’ be the kind of Strength Coach who…”
“Can’t relate to people well enough to put his knowledge to good use.”

“Makes his athletes strong but too inflexible to use it on the field.”

“Has a lat pulldown machine but no chin-up bar”


Teddy Willsey says – ”Dont’ be the kind of Strength Coach who…”
“thinks powerlifting alone develops power”

“thinks every athlete should perform olympic lifts”

“does not sufficiently warm up their athletes through dynamic movement prior to strenuos work”

“believes every athlete should squat ass to grass”

“does not consistently prescribe specific exercises to help prevent inury or “prehab” the low back, shoulders and knees”

“does not understand that introducing a new exercise is an additional stressor”

“does not take into account the bioenergetic demands of each individual athlete’s specific position in their competitive event”

“gets more glute activation in bed than in the gym”

“isn’t constantly reading, learning, and open to new information”

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Konstantin Konstantinovs is a 31 year old, 6’4″, 275 lb powerlifter from Latvia. He is one of the top three deadlifters in the world, having deadlifted 947 lbs. First is Andy Bolton, a 39 year old, 6’0″, 380 lb powerlifter from England, who is the only man who has deadlifted over 1,000 lbs (1,009 lbs to be exact). Second is Benedikt Magnussen, a 25 year old, 6’0″, 391 lb powerlifter from Iceland, who actually completed a Hummer deadlift of 1,100 lbs in a strongman competition, but strongman rules allow lifting straps and the Hummer’s tires shorten the lift’s range of motion. Benedikt has done 970 lbs officially and 994 lbs in training, but he now concentrates on strongman, not powerlifting.

What makes Konstantinovs so amazing is that he is right up there with the other top deadlifters despite weighing over 100 lbs less than the two individuals ahead of him. Konstantinovs also has the raw deadlift record, as Bolton and Magnusson were equipped when they set their records. On a side note, it is interesting that the top 3 deadlifters of all time all pull conventionally as opposed to sumo.

I am a huge fan of Konstantinovs; he is in my opinion the best deadlifter in the world, he likes to lift raw, he deadlifts heavy twice every 9-12 days, his appearance portrays functional strength and freakishly dense muscularity, and he has very well-rounded strength levels.

Deadlift 939 lbs Raw

Deep Squat 727 lbs Raw

Close Grip Bench Press 551 lbs Raw

Bodyweight Kipping Pull Up 55 Reps

Deadlift 837 lbs Four Reps Raw

Elevated Deadlift 771 lbs Three Reps Raw

Rack Pull 954 lbs Three Reps

Check out his voice at the end of this last video; he even sounds like a badass!

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Professors from Harvard Business School, Insead and Brigham Young University have just completed a six-year study of more than 3,000 executives and 500 innovative entrepreneurs that identified five skills that separate the blue-sky innovators from the rest. Here are the five skills:

Associating: The ability to connect seemingly unrelated questions, problems or ideas from different fields.

Questioning: Innovators constantly ask questions that challenge the common wisdom. They ask “why?”, “why not?” and “what if?”

Observing: Discovery-driven executives scrutinize common phenomena, particularly the behavior of potential customers.

Experimenting: Innovative entrepreneurs actively try out new ideas by creating prototypes and launching pilots.

Networking: innovators go out of their way to meet people with different ideas and perspectives.

Are you an innovator or a follower?

If you want to be an innovator in the strength training field then you have to put your time in learning everything else that is out there and then decide for yourself what needs to be improved upon. You need to learn, read, watch, train yourself, and train others. You need to work hard to rise up the ranks and gain acceptance in order to improve your networking. You need to think outside the box and try new things. Most important, you need to learn how to communicate your message effectively.

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The late, great Mel Siff often referred to the Seven S-factors of fitness. The S-factors include:

1. strength
2. stamina (general cardiovascular endurance and local muscular endurance)
3. suppleness (flexibility)
4. speed
5. skill (kinasthesis, motor coordination and control)
6. structure (size, shape), and
7. spirit (psychological fitness)

Dr. Siff sure was ahead of his time. I tend to look at fitness like this:

1. soft tissue quality (foam rolling, TPT, SMR)
2. flexibility (soft tissue length, static, dynamic, ballistic, PNF)
3. mobility (dynamic warm up)
4. stability (isometric strength, core stability (anterior, lateral, rotational))
5. movement efficiency (activation work, corrective exercise (prehab), motor control, balance (proprioception), posture, strength balances, skill, technique, form, minimization of energy leaks, clean movement, etc.)
6. hypertrophy (sarcomeric and sarcoplasmic, cross sectional area (CSA))
7. strength (limit strength (absolute strength), strength-speed, speed strength, starting strength (impulse), relative strength, upper body, core, lower body)
8. power (explosive strength, rate of force development (RFD), neural drive, HTMU stimulation, rate coding, synchronization, intermuscular coordination, intramuscular coordination)
9. agility (load vector specific training, eccentric strength)
10. reactive ability (elasticity, plyometrics, ballistics, reflex potentiation and inhibition)
11. linear speed (sprint training, sled work, towing)
12. quickness (reaction time, hand-eye coordination, contraction/relaxation sequences)
13. conditioning (local muscular endurance, energy system development (aerobic, glycolytic, phosphagen), power endurance, work capacity, GPP, SPP)
14. regeneration (nutrition, sleep, stress (distress, eustress), visualization, thermal therapy, cryotherapy, massage, SMR, vibration, EMS, supplementation, nutrient timing)
15. mental toughness (pain tolerance, drive, determination, motivation, desire, adaptability (to chaos), discipline, coachability, instincts, sport knowledge, kinasthetic intelligence)
16. genetic gifts (anthropometry (leverages), somatotype, height, weight, body composition, fiber type proportions, tendon insertion points, anabolic and catabolic hormone levels, resistance to illness and injury, damping efficiency, stiffness, viscocity)

I know it’s complex but once you understand how these various components interact, you can now build the optimal athlete!

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